Drum - Drumoak - Dalmaik



Drumoak, County of Aberdeen, OSA, Vol. III, 1792


(County of Aberdeen.)
By the Rev. Mr JAMES FRASER.

Name, Situation, etc. - In this part of the country, it is almost always called Dalmaik. The church and manse are situated by the river Dee, on a haugh (in Erse Dal); and near, a well, which has still the name of St Maik's Well. Yet it is almost universally written Drumoak, and sometimes Drumoak. It is Drumoak in papers above 150 years old. It lies in the country of Aberdeen, (except what belongs to the estate of Leys, in the west end of the parish, which is in Kincardineshire,) and in the presbytery and synod of Aberdeen. It is about four measured miles from east to west, and about two from north to south.

Soil and Climate. - The soil is shallow, and a great deal of it is only fit for sheep pasture. The air is dry and very healthy.

Population. - In 1790, the number of souls was 708, of whom, 321 were males, and 387 females. In Dr Webster's report, the number is 760. In 1780, the number was 603; and in 1786, only 637. The annual average of births for

[309] of Forgundeney not 316 i.e. wrong page ….


servants receive about 5 l. per annum of wages; women about 2 l.; labourers in husbandry, 1 s. per day, or 6 d. and their victuals. Peats from the moss, of which a certain quantity is allotted to each farm, are chiefly used for fuel. The roads are in good repair. The statute labour is partly performed in kind, and partly commuted. The best arable land is rented at about 15 s. per acre. The number of farms is not diminishing. There are few inclosures*.

* For farther particulars respecting this parish, the reader is referred to a book printed at Paisley, in 1782, entitled, "Description of the East Coast of Scotland, by Francis Douglas," p. 255, etc. where a description is given of the Tower of Drum,

# # #



Drumoak, County of Aberdeen, NSA, Vol. XII, 1845

- - - - -

Name. - This parish has two names, Dalmaik and Drumoak, both of which have been written differently at different periods. The first is the name generally given to it by the people in the parish and neighbourhood, and seems, indeed, to be the most ancient, for, so early as the year 1157, there is mentioned in a bull of Pope Adrian IV. " Ecclesiam de Dulmayok," * whereas the latter name, Drumoak, has not been observed in any writing earlier than 1407, at which date, a charter granted by Bishop Gilbert is subscribed, " Alexr. de Kynloch, prebendariu de Drumaok." + After that period, both names seem to have been used indiscriminately, so that in 1541, the copies of a charter, and the precept of sasine on it, are signed " Robertus Lockhart de Dulmaok," ++ and, in 1543, a charter of obligation by the vicars of the choir is signed by the same individual, " Robertus Lockhart de Drumaok." $

Drumoak, which thus appears to be the more modern name of the parish, is derived from the Gaelic word Drum, the ridge of a hill and Moloch (Molochus), contracted into Moak, the name of a celebrated saint, in honour of whom a monastery was erected in St Servanus's Isle, on the water of Leven, which gave its name to the parish of Portmoak, so that the word Drumoak signifies the hill of St Moloch, a name which is very applicable to the parish. #

* Chartulary of the See of Aberdeen, fo. 43.

+ Regist. Capellanorum, fo. 66. ++ Ibid. p. 100.

$ Necrol. fo. 22.

The writer begs to acknowledge his obligations to the Rev. A. Taylor, minister Of Leochel-Cushny, for the kind assistance which he rendered him while librarian of King's College, in fixing the etymology of the name of the parish, by furnishing him with extracts from the Chartularies of the See of Aberdeen, which are preserved in that library.

# The gradual change of the original name of this monastery into that which it
now bears,-a change corresponding exactly with that which has taken place on the
name of this parish,-distinctly shown by the variations in tis orthography, as found
in several acts of Parliament ;-thus, in an act of date 1469, it is Portmollok ; in
1471, it is Portmowok ; and in 1567-8, it is Portmook.


Dalmaik is compounded of the Gaelic word Dal, a haugh or valley, and the name of the saint, contracted into Maik instead of Moak, as in the former case, hence the word Dalmaik signifies the valley of St Moloch, a name which is very descriptive of that part of the parish where the ruins of the old church stand. And this derivation is supported by the circumstance, that, beside the old church (although within the boundary of the parish of Peterculter), there is a holy well, which is known by the name of St Maik's Well. *

* Camerarius in his book, De statu Hominis et SanctiS Regni Scotiae, gives the
following account of St Molochus: "25 die Junii. Sanctus Molonachus siue Mo-
lochus Episcopus et confessor qui pro viribus in Maria Scotie prouinci� proximorum
saluti studuit. de eo vide Boetium, Leslaeum, et alios. Argadenses Scoti constan-
ter semper tenuerunt apud se Sancti Molochi reliquias esse in Lismorensi Basilies
illius nomini dicata."-P. 214.

Extent, Boundaries, &c. - This parish is situated in the counties of Aberdeen and Kincardine ; is 6 measured miles in length, averages about 2 in breadth, and contains an area of nearly 12 square miles. It is bounded by Banchory-Ternan, Echt, Peterculter, and Durris; being divided from Echt and Peterculter, on the north, by the burns of Gormac and Culter,-and from Durris, on the south, by the river Dee. Its figure is somewhat triangular, but very irregular, on account of the manner in which it is indented or dove-tailed into the neighbouring parishes of Peterculter on the east, and Banchory- Ternan on the west. No part of its surface is much elevated, the Drum Hill (which is the highest, and stands in the centre of the parish,) being only 500 feet above the level of the sea. From this elevation the ground falls on all sides, with gentle undulations, to the different boundaries, except on the east side, where the Ord Hill rises rather abruptly to the height of about 430 feet above the sea, and runs its ridge to the extremity of the parish in that direction. The southern peak of the Drum Hill affords a magnificent and extensive prospect, the eye ranging almost from the German Ocean, on the east, along the valley watered by the river, and bounded on the south by the chain of Grampians, till it rests, in the far west, on the snow-clad mountains among which the Dee has its source.

Meteoralqgy. - Dee-side is proverbially dry and thirsty, and to no part of that extensive district is the remark more applicable than to this parish. The soil in that division of it which lies along the bank of the river is not only light, but generally rests on a bed of gravel, through which the rain easily filters away, and, in con- [874] sequence of its southerly inclination, the rays of the sun beat upon it intensely, and quickly dry up any moisture which might have lingered about the plants. To add to this disadvantage, less rain seems to fall here than on places in the vicinity, for the clouds which appear on the west pouring out their watery treasures on the high grounds of Banchory and Strachan, instead of continuing their course down the valley, which a stranger would think inevitable, are often attracted by the Grampians on the south, and the Hill of Fare on the north; so that the anxious farmer frequently sees, day after day, heavy rains falling in the immediate neighbourhood, while his parched crops, unrefreshed by a single shower, languish beneath the sun's unclouded influence. This inconvenience, indeed, is partially remedied by the sea-fogs, which, towards the evening of a sultry day, creep up the course of the river from the east, and roll over the Grampians from the south, filling the valley with a refreshing mist, which continues spread over it through the night; but as this, although very beneficial, is quite inadequate to raise a luxuriant crop of straw, the smaller farmers, unable to purchase and drive it from a distance, are frequently in dry seasons obliged to bruise whins for their cattle to supply the deficiency.

Climate. - The air, especially on the south side of the parish, is pure and dry, and its temperature mild and salubrious. No endemical diseases are known : and the most common complaints are, rheumatism, affections of the bowels, and disorders proceeding from a scrofulous habit. A satisfactory proof of the great healthiness of the parish is furnished by the fact, that in our small population, there are at present, (1840), twenty-individuals alive upwards of eighty years of age, six of whom are above the age of ninety. The oldest are two sisters, who have attained the respective ages of ninety-six and ninety-four; both are in the enjoyment of very good health, and have the comfortable use of many of their faculties.

Hydrography.-Perennial springs, issuing generally from gravel,

supply the parish with abundance of excellent water. We have also two chalybeate springs of considerable strength, but, as they have never been analyzed, their virtues are as yet unknown to fame - one, called," The Parson's Well," is near the House of Park, and the other, (which is the stronger of the two), is in the neighbourhood of the Loch of Drum.

The river Dee, which flows along the southern boundary of the [875] parish for nearly four miles, is the highest river in Great Britain, its source being on Braeriach, a mountain in the head of Braemar, 4000 feet above the level of the sea. From that alpine region it descends impetuously in an easterly direction, and, after pursuing a winding course through scenes of acknowledged grandeur and magnificence, falls into the German Ocean at Aberdeen, nearly eighty miles from its source. The superabundant waters of about 900 square miles feed its current, but so clean are its gravelly banks and pebbly channel, that its water rivals in purity the most limpid streams in Scotland. Having run between sixty and seventy miles from its source, and fallen 3870 feet, it enters this parish at an elevation of 130, and passes its eastern extremity at the old church, 90 feet above the medium level of the sea. When at an ordinary summer height, its stream on this part of its course varies in depth from 2 to 12 feet, and its breadth from 10 to 70 yards, its average fall being 10 feet per mile, * and its velocity about 3 1/2 miles an hour. At the great flood in August 1829, the height which it attained on the lawn at Park, where a wide expanse of haugh allowed its water to spread on both sides of the channel, was 14 feet above its ordinary summer level. This beautiful river, though much superior to its gentler neighbour, the Don, in the value of its salmon-fishings, has never, like it, been rendered serviceable to the manufacturer; for, at no part of its course, is its fine stream employed as a moving power to any kind of machinery. Nor does it compensate this unprofitableness to the manufacturer by rivalling the Don in usefulness to the agriculturist; for instead of fattening his meadows with a rich alluvion, its inundations carry off the best part of the soil, and deposit in its place a bed of sand possessed of little or no vegetative power; while its wintry torrent, unwilling to be restrained, contends powerfully with the embankments which have been raised to protect the haughs from its destructive ravages, and occasions great trouble and expense to the proprietors, in repairing the breaches which it too frequently makes. This difference between the two rivers, and the value of their respective banks, are well contrasted in the proverbial lines,

" A foot o' Don's worth twa o' Dee,
Except it be for fish and tree."

* This may be regarded as the average fall of this river from Aberdeen to Aboyne.

The Loch of Drum is a fine oblong sheet of water, which covers a space of 84 acres, 3 roods, 7 poles. Its margin is fringed [876] with alders and on three sides it is bounded by a thriving plantation of larch, birch, and Scotch fir. The average depth of its water is now, reduced to about four feet, the late proprietor having allowed Sir Robert Burnett to draw off four feet in order to dry a low tract of ground belonging to him at its western extremity. This is much to be regretted, as the water on many parts is now so shallow that a very few summers must cover them with aquatic plants, which, at no distant period, will convert this beautiful loch into an unsightly morass. *

* Dr Keith, in his survey of Aberdeenshire published in 1811, (before the above mentioned-drainage took place), estimated the extent of this loch at 300 acres.-- P72

Geology and Mineralogy. - Nothing of much interest to the geologist and mineralogist has hither to been discovered in this parish. The only rocks which appear above the surface are gneiss and granite; and these are at present so little exposed that they cannot be subjected to accurate examination. Boulders of the same kinds occur abundantly, and are employed in the erection of fences and farm-steadings. On that part of the glebe which is called the Keith's moor, flint of a black and yellow colour is found.

Soil. - The soil is various, but mostly of an inferior quality. That which lies along the river side is light and, sandy, recumbent on gravel, and consequently dry and early. In other places, it is
thin and moorish, and frequently rests on till, or an equally hard and retentive moor-band. Some spots, however, which have long been under cultivation, are loamy, and, when properly treated, carry abundant crops. There are several mosses in the parish from which the inhabitants dig fuel; but, with the exception of that part of the red moss which lies in it, and is of great depth, they are all nearly exhausted, and much of them might be profitably converted into arable last. Many, oak, alder, birch, and fir trees, the wreck of the noble forests which once adorned this part of the country, are found imbedded in them. And as these relics are often discovered with their roots attached, and lying in an easterly direction they must be regarded as memorials of some westerly storm's destructive effects, of which, amid the revolution of centuries, even tradition itself has lost the record.

Zoology. - The woods of Park and Drum are frequented by roe-deer. Foxes and polecats infest the same coverts; but their depredations seldom extend to the poultry-house, as they can always prey with more safety on the common hare and rabbit, which are


very numerous. Among the brush-wood and furze, the hedgehog is increasing rapidly; and in the cairns and drystone fences, the weasel or common whitret abounds. The otter is often seen pursuing his destructive occupation in the river; and the badger, though less abundant than formerly, is still occasionally met with on its banks.

Ornithology. - The extensive plantations which, have been reared, and the progress of agricultural improvements, have increased in the parish the number of many species of birds, diminished that of others, and rendered some altogether extinct. Upon the moors
the lapwing and plover are found in their season. In fenny copses, the woodcock appears about the beginning of October; and on the open marshes, which generally abound with common snipes, the jack-snipe (Scolopax gallinula), is frequently met with, and the whistle of the lonely curlew is also sometimes heard. In the fields partridges are numerous; but black-cock ( Tetrao tetrix), became extinct in the parish about three years ago, and only two or three packs of moor-fowl (Tetrao Scoticus), are now hatched annually in the Red moss. In belts and young plantations, the chaffinch, bulfinch, red-breast, common wren (Troglodytes Europeus), and several creepers, are abundant. The golden-crested wren (Regulus auricapillus), though sometimes seen, is rare ; and the goldfinch (Fringilla carpels), must also be regarded, as un-common. In the same coverts, the blackbird and thrush have become so numerous, that the sweetness of their song no longer protects them in the garden from the fate of other depredators.

The woods afford a suitable retirement for ringdoves, and some of the most common species of hawk's and owls ; and the wood or Drum, in particular, is frequented not only by the Royston -or hooded-crow (Corvus cornix), the jackdaw (Corvus monedula), and the magpie (Garrulus pica) ; but a numerous colony of rooks (C. frugilegus), have occupied part of it as a nursery for many years. This last species pair about the middle of February, build their nests early in March, lay four or five eggs, which are hatched in April, and towards the middle of May their young appear upon the branches. The myriads of birds which belong to this rookery, and inhabit it throughout the year, except for a few weeks in summer, when many of them are supposed to migrate in quest of mountain-berries, are not only of great benefit to the country for many miles around ; but from the commencement of incubation to the time at which their young become capable of providing for [878] themselves, they are particularly so to the farmers in their immediate neighbourhood, for, being unable at that period to go far from their nests in search of food, they are daily seen actively employed in turning clods, and clearing of vermin the newly sown fields, so that few complaint are heard in this parish of the destructive ravages of grub.

Water-Birds.-Among the gulls which come up the Dee in spring are seen the common gull, the laughing or black-headed gull (Larus ridibundus), and the kittiwake (L. rissa). On its banks are found the water-ouzel (Cinclus aquaticus), the gray wagtail (Motacilla alba), the yellow wagtail (Motacilla boarula), the common sandpiper (Totanus hypoleucos), and, though more rarely, the ring-sandpiper or dottrel. The oyster catcher (Hirmatopus ostralegus) abounds in the same locality, making its appearance early in February. This bird, according to Buffon, " never inhabits the marshes or the mouths of rivers, but remains constantly on or near the beach ; probably because fresh waters do not afford the proper subsistence." In this country, however, its habits are different ; for it collects sustenance not only on the fresh water beach of the Dee, but even in the neighbouring fields, in which it may be seen feeding almost daily ; and that not in the vicinity of the sea-shores, but in this parish, every little inch in the channel of the river, and every extended bed of pebbles on its margin, being annually occupied by so many of these wakeful and noisy birds, that the ear is fatigued by their shrill unceasing cry. In the loch of Drum there is a great variety of water-fowl, among which may be specified, the water-hen (Gallinula choloropus), the common coot (Fulica atra), and the little grebe. It is also frequented by the heron, golden-eyed duck (Anas clangula), and the widgeon (A. penelope). The mallard (A boschas), teal-duck (A. crecea), and wild goose are abundant. In severe winters, a few swans generally pay it a visit ; and in such seasons also, the goosander (Mergus marganser), sometimes appears on it and the Dee, but so rarely, that only two of them have been shot for several years.

Ichthyology. - In the burns of Gormac and Culter, common trout are sufficiently numerous, especially in the latter stream, to afford tolerably good sport to the angler. In the loch of Drum, eels are plentiful; and some, perches (Perca fluviatilis), which were put into it a few years ago by the late proprietor, have increased considerably. Pike are also abundant in it, and attain a large size. Their fry which escape, and inhabit the still pools of [879] the river, become superior in quality to those which remain in the loch, the pureness of the water and greater abundance of food making them whiter, firmer, and more delicate; those which average from two to three pounds are esteemed the best. In the Dee, all the kinds already mentioned occur more or less frequently; also par, sea-trout (Salmo trutta), white trout or phinoc (Salmo, albus), and flounder. But the fish for which it has long and justly been celebrated is salmon (Salmo salar). They formed, in ancient times, the principal article of exports from Aberdeen, and were esteemed of so superior a quality, that a small barrel of them formed part of the provisions of the ship, which was sent in 1290, to bring over the infant Queen of Scotland from Norway. Although less abundant now than formerly, they still retain their character for excellence, and generally bring the highest price both in the home and foreign markets. They ascend the river heavy with spawn about the end of September, and are found returning to the sea until the close of February. The state of the salmon-fishings here, and the cause of their unproductiveness, will be noticed afterwards.

Botany. - As the soil of this parish is generally of inferior quality, and none of its surface much elevated, a great variety in its botanical productions cannot be expected. The Dee, however, enriches its flora with many beautiful specimens of alpine species; a considerable number of aquatics are furnished by the loch of Drum ; and a few plants, of rather rare occurrence, have been observed in other localities. It would be useless to particularize many of the more interesting species, such as

Utricularia intermedia Nymphaea alba Goodyera repens
Arundo epigejos Nuphar lutea Osmunda regalis
Poa aquatica Origanum vulgare Piluluria giobulifera
Potamogeton heterophyllum Clinopodium vulgare Equisetum fluviatile, &c-
Pyrola minor Subularia aquatica
Peplis portula Hieracium subaundum

as they have already been noted, and their localities indicated by Mr Dickie in his Flora Abredonensis, and by the late Dr Murray in his Northern Flora. But the following plants, to which these writers have assigned no habitat in this parish, may be mentioned with propriety, as they are either rare in Scotland, or of infrequent occurrence in the surrounding district.

Galium, boreale, near old church. . . Hedera helix, rock near the manse.
Primula veris } * . . . . . . . . . . Ligusticum meum, near Park House.
P. elatior } * Do. . . . . . . . . . . Statice armeria, Do,

* These plants were also gathered, by the writer, a good many years ago, on an inch in the river opposite Bieldside; and in a field upon that property, he found, about the same time, the rare and beautiful Verbascum thapsus.


Oxyria reniformis, near Park House .. . Hypericum pulchrum, glebe.
Saxifraga aizoides, Do. . . . . . . . . Tussilago farfara, near Bakebare
Prunus spinosa, glebe. . . . . . .. . . T. petasites, near the old church.
Nasturtium officinale, King's Well. . . Solidago virgaurea, do. and Park House.
Geranium sylvaticum, near Park House. . Corylus avellana, glebe.
Hypericum humifusum } . . . . . . . . . Mercurialis perennis, near Park House.
H. hirsutum } glebe. . . . . . .. . . . Botrychium lunaria, near Bogtown.

Woods. - Within the last thirty years, extensive plantations of larch and Scotch fir, interspersed with birch and other hard-wood trees, have been reared upon the different estates, and have added greatly, to the beauty, comfort, and fertility of the parish. They are at present in a very thriving condition, and may be expected, in a few years, amply to repay the proprietors. In the policies of Drum, there are a good many old oak, ash, plane, and elm-trees, which have attained such a size as indicates that they are congenial to the soil and climate ; and near the house are two large and beautiful hollies, the stem of one of which is 7 feet high from the ground to the lowermost branches, and is 7 feet 6 inches in circumference.


* The writer is not aware of the existence of any historical account of this parish, except one in manuscript, which is said to be in the Advocates' Library, Edinburgh, but with the contents of which he has not been able to make himself acquainted.

The estate of Drum, which at present constitutes one-half of the parish, was originally part of a royal forest, and one of the hunting-seats of the Kings of Scotland. The park of Drum formed part of the chase, and a powerful spring, at the north-east end of the loch, is still known by the designation of the King's Well. This estate has long been possessed by the family of the present proprietor, Irvine of Drum, being a name which is recorded with honour in the national annals. William de Irwin, the first of that line, (who belonged to the family of Irwin of Bonshaw, in Dumfries-shire, and is supposed by some to have been its chief), was chosen by Robert Bruce, when struggling with Edward I. for the Crown of Scotland, to be his armour-bearer, receiving, at the same time, the device which Bruce himself had borne as Earl of Carrick, viz. three bunches of holly leaves, supported by two savages, wreathed, with the motto, " Sub sole, sub umbra virens;" and having accompanied his royal master in his wanderings, participated in his narrow escapes, and attended him while performing those deeds of desperate valour which have thrown an air of romance around his history, was rewarded by him for his great zeal and fidelity with a grant, by charter under the Great Seal, of the forest of Drum, anno .1323. =

= This charter of the forest of Drum (for the park of Drum was reserved by Robert Bruce, and not conveyed with the forest lands to William de Irwin), is still extant, and is dated, " A pud Berwicum super Tweddam, primo die Februarii anno Regninostri septimo decimo." Among the family papers there is another charter by Robert I., dated at Kynros, 4 October, eighteenth year of his reign, in which are the expressions, " Cum furca el fossa soc et sac thol et them et infangandthef."


Some time after this, a deadly feud seems to have arisen between the Keiths, hereditary great Marischals of Scotland, and the Irvines of Drum; and tradition tells of a fight which took place between them on a moor on the north bank of the Dee, which now forms part of the glebe, and is known by the name of the Keiths' Muir. In that battle the Irvines were victorious, and drove their enemies across the river, at a deep and rocky part of its channel, which still bears the appellation of the Keiths' Pot; and a rock, which occasionally appears a few inches above the water, on which, as is said, one of the fugitives took refuge and was killed, retains the name of the Keiths' Stone. In order to stop this bloody feud, the states of the kingdom interfered, and enjoined Alexander Irvine, the third in descent, to marry Elizabeth Keith, daughter of the great Marischal. Drum so far tempered his resentment with that spirit of loyalty which has always distinguished the family, as to enter into the proposed alliance, by submitting to the performance of the marriage ceremony ; and this external union, which seems to have been all that took place between the parties, bad the desired effect of binding the two families together in bonds of friendship, which remained long unbroken. But this powerful Baron not only distinguished himself in feudal fights with the great Marischal, but also when opposed to the more formidable forces of Donald, Lord of the Isles. That chieftain having taken possession of the Earldom of Ross, and ravaged the fertile provinces of Moray, Strathbogie, and the Garioch, was met by the Lowland army, under the Regent's nephew, at Harlaw, about nineteen miles west from Aberdeen. There a bloody conflict ensued, during which, Irvine of Drum (who had a command in the Lowland army), and Maclean of Dowart (Donald's Lieutenant-General), encountered each other, and fought hand to hand with such determined bravery, that both were killed. Drum was buried on the field of battle by his followers, who also raised a cairn of remembrance over his grave; and, the following stanza, in the popular ballad of the battle of Harlaw, composed at the time, records at once his gallantry, and the high respect with which his countrymen regarded him:

" Gude Sir Alexander Irvine,

The much renounit Laird of Drum.
Nane in his dais wer better sene,
Quhen thai wer semblit all and som.
To praise him we sud not be dumm,
For valour, wit, and worthiness;
To end his dais he ther did cum,
Quhois ransurn is remedyles."

It is said, that when hastening to Harlaw at the head of his vassals, and accompanied by his brother Robert, he halted upon the hill of Auchrony, in the parish of Skene, from the summit of which the house of Drum was visible on the one band, and the field of battle on the other, and there seated on a stone, which still bears the appellation of Drum's Stone, he advised Robert (if he himself should be slain), to marry his sister-in-law on his return, with whom, as he assured him, he had never consummated his marriage. Robert having escaped the slaughter, married the lady according to this advice, and, upon succeeding to the estates, changed his Christian name to Alexander. He was one of the Scottish Commissioners who went to London in 1423, by appointment of the States, to effect the liberation of James I. from his long captivity in England, and received the honour of knighthood from that Prince in 1424. During the confusion which followed the murder of the King at Perth, the inhabitants of Aberdeen, whose interests the family of Drum had always been ready to promote, solicited the services of Sir Alexander for the defence and protection of the city, and, in 1440, the burgesses unanimously consented to his being appointed Captain and Governor of the burgh, an office which the exigency of the times rendered expedient, and which invested him with an authority in the town superior to that of the chief magistrate. This honourable situation was held by Sir Alexander for two years, and there is no other instance upon record of the existence of the office in Aberdeen.

His second son distinguished himself so highly at the battle Of Brechin in 1452, that he received a charter of the lands of Beltie from the Marquis of Huntly, under whom he served, as a reward for his services on that occasion.

At the turbulent period when James V. ascended the throne, and while the reins of Government were held by the Earl of Angus, we find this family still pursuing the same honourable course, and maintaining the high name by which they had hitherto been distinguished for the King bestowed upon the eldest son of Sir Alexander, a gift of non-entry to the lands of Forglen, dated 4th December 1527, and bearing to be given " On account [883] of Drum, his said son, and their friends, their good and thankful service done to the King in searching, taking, and bringing his rebels to justice." The young laird, whose loyalty and zeal are recognized in that document, took an active part also in the stirring events which occurred during the minority of Mary, till, having joined the Regent near Musselburgh, to aid in repelling the English invasion by the Duke of Somerset, he was killed in his father's lifetime at the fatal battle of Pinkey, where so many of Scotland's best and bravest fell.

The son of this gentleman succeeded to the estates, on the death of his grandfather, and married Lady Elizabeth Keith, daughter of the Earl Marischal. Their eldest son obtained the lands in 1583, and distinguished himself as a patron of learning, and a benefactor to the poor. * In 1629, he devised L.10,000 Scots, for the maintenance of four bursars in philosophy and two in divinity at the Marischal College, and four at the grammar-school of Aberdeen, vesting the right of presenting to them in the family of Drum. He also mortified 32 bolls of meal to persons on his property in this parish, viz. 12 to poor scholars, 8 to the parochial schoolmaster for teaching them, and 12 to decayed tenants,-all of which are annually divided at the sight of the kirk-session. His lady (Lady Marion Douglas, daughter of the Earl of Buchan,) also mortified,3000 merks, anno 1633, to endow a hospital in Aberdeen, for the widows and aged daughters of decayed burgesses, the patronage of which is exercised by the town-council.

* As the Earl of Mar eked out the scanty wardrobe of his sovereign, by sending at his request, " a pair of silken hose, with goud clocks at them," to enable him in a befitting manner to give an audience to the French ambassador, so this Laird of Drum seems to have ministered to the pecuniary wants of the same needy monarch, and to have rendered him his debtor; for there is extant in the charter-chest a holograph bond by King James VI. to Drum for 500 merks, dated at Dalkeith, 27th November 1587, and payable at Whitsunday thereafter.

This benevolent man was succeeded by Sir Alexander, his eldest son, who married Magdalen, daughter of Sir John Scrimzeour of Diddup, Constable of Dundee. He was sheriff principal of Aberdeen in 1634, and several following years; and obtained a patent from King Charles 1. creating him Earl of Aberdeen, which the breaking out of the civil war prevented from passing, the Great Seal. During the subsequent troubles he suffered much in his person, his family, and his property, on account of his attachment to the Royal cause. His house and lands were frequently occupied and plundered by the army of the Covenant; and he himself was warded, fined, and more than once obliged to flee for safety to the court of England.


He was succeeded by his son, Alexander, who married Lady Mary Gordon, fourth daughter of the Marquis of Huntly - a marriage which did not tend to weaken, but rather to strengthen and confirm in him those political principles which he had inherited from his forefathers. Accordingly, he and his brother Robert, during the lifetime of their father, joined the banner of Charles, and distinguished themselves so highly in his service, that they were excommunicated, (14th April 1644,) and had a price set upon their heads-18,000 merks being, offered for the young Laird, dead or alive, and 9000 for his brother Robert. These measures rendered their situation in Scotland so perilous, that they sailed from Fraserburgh with the intention of going to England; but, being obliged to re-land near Wick, in Caithness, where a committee happened to be sitting, they were made prisoners, and warded in the castle of Keish. Thence they were conducted under a strong escort to Edinburgh, and lodged in the city jail.

Robert, after a rigorous confinement of six months, died, and was buried at midnight. The young laird, who occupied the same apartment, and w ose health had also become impaired, was then removed to the castle under sentence of death, and without hope of mercy. His execution, however, was happily stayed by the defeat of the Covenanters at Kilsyth, and Montrose having marched to Edinburgh restored him to liberty. Upon the restoration of Charles II. the magistrates of Aberdeen prepared a loyal address, and deputed Mr Irvine to present it to His Majesty. The King, out of gratitude for his faithful services, and as some remuneration for the sacrifices which he had made in supporting his cause, renewed to him the offer of the peerage which Charles I. Had made to his father; but, as Drum's fortune and estates were so dilapidated that he could not without difficulty have upheld the dignity of the title, and as it was refused to give this patent the date which the one formerly granted bad borne, he declined to accept of the high distinction. About twenty years afterwards, however, the King, in granting a charter, containing a novodamus of Drum's whole estates holding of the Crown, took occasion to express in it the deep sense which he had of the family's loyalty, of the valuable services which they had rendered to the country, and of Mr Irvine's personal sufferings in his cause. He died in 1687, and was buried in his own aisle, (Drum's aisle,) in the parish church of St Nicholas, Aberdeen, his funeral being attended by the magistrates and citizens under arms.

Alexander Irvine, Esq. the present venerable proprietor, suc-[885] ceeded to the estates upon the death of his fattier, in 1761, and is the nineteenth laird, and the fourteenth in descent, being both the heir of line and the heir of entail of this ancient and bonourable family. He holds the patronage of the church, and, in point of valued rent, is the principal heritor, and resident in the parish.

Leys. - That part of the land of Leys which is situated in this parish, and forms the next great division of it, lies within the boundary of the county of Kincardine, and has, for upwards of five hundred years, been in possession of the family of the present Proprietor, Sir Thomas Burnett, Bart. The family seat is at Crathes, in Banchory-Ternan, which renders it unnecessary to enter minutely into the history of the family here, as that will be done with greater propriety in the account of the parish in which the family is resident. It may, however, be suitably observed, that a character of the lands of Kilhenach, Clerach, &c, (in this parish,) was granted to Alexander Burnard, by King Robert Bruce, in the eighteenth year of his reign, (1324,) and was confirmed to his successor, Robert Burnard, by a charter under the Great Seal, granted by King David Bruce, in 1358. The first time that we find the name of this barony assumed as the distinguishing title of the family is in 1409; and King James III., in 1481., gave a charter under the Great Seal of the lands of Canoglerocht to Alexander Burnett of Leys. In the year 1621, Thomas Burnett received the honour of Knighthood from James VI. ; and, about five years afterwards, " Charles I. created him a Baronet, by his Royal patent, to him and his heirs-male whatever, terrarum barotiiae et regalitatis de Leys-Burnet, in Nova Scotia in America." * Sir Thomas Burnett, who succeeded to the patrimonial honours and estates in 1838, is the nineteenth Laird, and the eight Baronet of Leys, and ranks as the second heritor in this parish.

* Baronage of Scotland.

Park. - The lands of Park (described in the original charter as situated in Kincardineshire, but now rated in Aberdeenshire,) formed, as has already been observed, part of a royal chase, and, having been reserved by Robert I. when he gave the forest lands to William de Irwin, were granted, by Charter from King David Bruce to Walter Moigne. In 1348, John Moigne, Lord of the Park of the Drum, executed a disposition of it to Alexander Irvine, Lord of the Drum; and, in 1393, the said John Moigne granted a charter in favour of said Alexander Irvine of a chalder of meal, paid of old to him by William de Burnard, for sustentation of the Park of Drum. These lands continued in the [886] possession of the family of Drum till 1737, when they entail having been reduced, they were sold to Mr Duff of Culter. From his family they passed, in 1807, into the hands of Thomas Burnett, Esq. Advocate in Aberdeen, and Purse-bearer to her Majesty's High Commissioner to the Church of Scotland ; who sold them, in 1821, to William Moir, Esq.; from whom they were purchased, in 1839, by the present proprietor, Alexander John Kinloch, Esq. who ranks as our third heritor, and is resident in the parish.

Culter. - That part of the lands of Culter which lies in this parish, and forms the last and smallest division of it, belonged also to the family of Drum, and was purchased from them by Mr Duff, along with the lands of Park, in 1737. Robert Duff, Esq. the present proprietor, ranks as our fourth heritor, and is non-resident.

Land-owners. - The four proprietors just mentioned are the only land-owners in the parish, viz. Alexander Irvine, Esq. of Drum; Sir Thomas Burnett, Bart. of Leys; Alexander John Kinloch, Esq. of Park; and Robert Duff, Esq. of Culter.

Eminent Characters. - This parish has the honour of being the birth-place of James Gregory, the celebrated inventor of the reflecting telescope, and the first who employed the transits of Mercury and Venus in determining the sun's parallax. His father, the Rev. John Gregory, was minister of the parish, and suffered much during the troubles for his outstanding against the Covenant, having been fined 1000 merks, imprisoned, plundered, and deposed. His mother, Janet Anderson, from whom he apparently inherited his mathematical talent, was sister to Alexander Anderson, Professor of Mathematics in the University of Paris, and daughter of David Anderson of Finzeauch, who constructed the lofty spire of St Nicholas Church, Aberdeen, and performed the mechanical feat of removing Knock Maitland,-a large rock which obstructed the entrance to the harbour of that city. Their son, James Gregory, was born here in 1638, and was educated in Aberdeen. A short time after he had completed his course at Marischal College, and when only twenty-four years of age, he published the Optica Promota, a work which excited the attention of the scientific world, and rendered his name illustrious. He then went to Italy to prosecute his studies at the University of Padua, and published there, in 1667, Vera circuli, et Hyperboles Quadratura. Upon his return to London, in the following year, he was chosen a Fellow of the Royal Society, published his Exercitationes Geometrica, and was appointed to fill the Mathematical Chair in the University of St Andrews. While in that situation he married Mary Jamieson, [887] relict of ----- Burnett of Elrick, and daughter of George Jamieson, the celebrated Scottish painter, by whom he bad three children. In 1674, he was removed from St Andrews to the Professorship of Mathematics in the University of Edinburgh, and died in 1675, in the thirty-seventh year of his age.

Parochial Registers.-The parish registers are voluminous. The record of doctrine and discipline consists of eight volumes, all of which are complete, (except the first, which wants two leaves at the beginning), and contain an interesting account of ecclesiastical transactions in the parish from 17th September 1682, the date of the earliest entry. The baptism resister (two vols.) was begun 3d January 1692, and the register of marriage contracts 2d June 1715 ; and, from these dates, both have been carefully brought down to the present day. A cash-book, in three volumes, contains an account of the intromissions of the session with the poor's funds from Whitsunday 1750. No register of deaths has ever been kept in the parish.

Antiquities.-The Fort or Tower of Drum stands upon the east side of the hill of that name, and is a large and venerable building. The date of its erection cannot be ascertained, as it existed when the estate was conveyed to the family in 1323; but it is conjectured, from the character of its architecture, that it must have been built about the twelfth century, while the forest of Drum was a royal chase,-probably by King William the Lion. It is of an oblong. form, somewhat rounded at the corners, being 50 feet 6 inches by 39 feet at the base, and 70 feet 6 inches in height to the top of the battlement. Its interior is divided into three stories-the roof of which are of vaulted mason-work ; but as the two uppermost seem to have been subdivided into two apartments each (the one over the other), by a wooden floor, fixed to stones which still project from both sides of the wall, the whole interior, when inhabited, may have been divided into five stories. There are at present two entrances to this tower, one on the south-west corner, which communicates with the house, and another, which seems to be the original one, is near the south-east corner of the building, 12 feet from the ground, on entering by which there are two inner doors immediately in front. Within the one towards the right is a dark narrow stair of 19 steps, which leads down to the dungeon (which is the first story), an apartment 28 feet 6 inches by 15 feet 6 inches, and 11 feet high, having a draw-well in one corner, 9 feet-deep, and a hole in the roof communicating with the apartments above, through which, it is imagined, the prisoners, were [888] supplied with food. The wall here is 11 feet thick. The, other inner door opens into the second storey, which is 82 feet by 20 feet 6 inches, and 22 feet 9 inches in height. Upon the right of the common entrance, and near the door of the dungeon, is a narrow stair, which winds up through the centre of the wall to the third storey, which is 24 feet 9 inches high, and of much the same area as the one just described. In the east end of its vaulted roof is a small door, which leads out to the battlement, access to which was obtained from the apartment below by means of a moveable ladder. This ancient edifice is kept in complete repair, and its walls are apparently as entire as when newly erected.

Under this head may also be noticed a carved stone, which was removed from the farm of the Gallow-burn (now called Bakebare) by the workmen employed in building, the House of Park, and which, although much defaced, was happily saved from destruction by the interference of the proprietor. It would be difficult to determine the purpose for which that stone was erected, as there exists no tradition regarding it to throw light upon its history. Its original situation was on the west end of the Keith's moor, not far from the spot where, in times of baronial jurisdiction, the gallows stood; but it can scarcely be supposed to have bad any connection with the latter circumstance, and must be of a much earlier date than that defeat of the Keiths by the Irvines, which occasioned the field on which the battle was fought to be called the Keiths' moor. The remains of it now stand beside a summer-house, on the top of the Hawk-hillock, within the policies of Park.

Many tumuli still exist in different parts of the parish, but nothing uncommon has been observed in any which have been opened, except in one which had been raised on the top of the Hawkhillock, and was levelled to afford a site for the summer-house already mentioned. During that operation three stone-coffins were disinterred, containing an urn and the ashes of the dead, which, by order of the proprietor, were again carefully buried in the place where they were found.

Arrow-heads are occasionally picked up by the inhabitants, and one, beautifully formed of yellow flint, was lately found on the Keiths' moor. A few silver coins were discovered about thirty years ago on the farm of Dalmaik ; but as they had all disappeared, except one, before the writer of this Account became connected with the parish, he can give no description of them,-the one, however, of which he has obtained possession, is a coin of Mary Stuart's, Queen of Scotland.


Modern Buildings. - The House of Drum, which adjoins the tower, is a large and spacious mansion. It was erected in 1619, and belongs to the Elizabethan style of architecture. Several important alterations were made upon it, at different times, by the present proprietor, who also removed the garden to a more suitable distance, and effected many great improvements on the pleasure grounds. The House of Park is a beautiful Grecian building, and was erected by the late proprietor in 1822, who also laid out the garden and surrounding policies with much taste and judgment.


The last Statistical Account of this parish contains the amount of its population at different dates from the time of Dr Webster's Report in 1755 to the year 1790; from which we learn, that it amounted at the latter period to 708, of whom 321 were males and 387 females. The following table shows the-state of the popopulation since that time:-

Population in 1795, - 664
1797, - 667
1801, - 648
1821, - 756
1831, - 804
1841, - 804

The increase which has taken place is to be attributed chiefly to the agricultural improvement of the parish; much waste land having been reclaimed and formed into new tenements.

The average number of births yearly from 1824 to 1831 is : 17
marriages, (both parties in the parish 2 1/2, ) 7
. . . . (one of the parties in the parish 4 1/2, )
deaths, 18 (13 willim?)

Population in 1831.

. . . . . . . . . . . .In the Kin- . . In the Aber- Total
. . . . . . . . . . . .cardineshire deenshire . in the
. . . . . . . . . . . . .district. . district. . parish.
Males,. . . . . . . . . . .76 . . . . 310 . . . . 386
Females,. . . . . . . . . .86 . . . . 332 . . . . 418
. . . . . . . . . . . . . .--- . . . . --- . . . . ---
. . . . . . . . . . . . . .162 . . . . 642 . . . . 804
Of whom were
Under 15, . . . . . . . . . 61 . . . . 217 . . 278
Betwixt 15 and 30, . .. . . 29 . . . . 169 . . 198
30 and 50,. . . . . . . . . 86 . . . . 134 . . 170
50 and 70,. . . . . . . . . 25 . . . .. 50 . . 105
Upwards of 70,. . . . . . . 11 . . . . .42 . .. 53

Number of householders,
. . . . . . . . . . .. . . .37 . . . . . 127 . . . 164
Ditto having children, . .. 20 . . . . . 72 . . . . 99
Average number of children in each family,
. . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 1/2 . . . . . 3
Bacheilors or widowers upwards of 50,
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 . . . . . . 17 . . . . 18
Widows or unmarried women upwards of 45,
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 . . . . . . 43 . . . . 52

Fatuous, 2; dumb, 1 ; deaf and dumb, 1.

The people seem to be generally satisfied with their circumstances, and, on the whole, enjoy, in a reasonable degree, the com- [890] forts and advantages of society. They are very sober and attentive to the ordinances of religion, and are possessed of many estimable moral qualities. Irregularities were common amongst them at funerals some years ago; but the present incumbent drew up a set of regulations, in 1830, which was signed by the male heads of families in the parish, and has been followed by the most beneficial effects,-funerals being now conducted in the most regular and solemn manner.


This parish contains of standard imperial acres as nearly as can be ascertained,

In Kincardineshire, 1797 ....... In Aberdeenshire, 5393 total, 7190
Under cultivation, ........ 798 .................. 3467 - 4265
Waste or continual pasture, 793 ................... 485 - 1278
Propor. of waste improvable, 300 ................... 80 - 380
Under wood, ................ 206 ................. 1441 - 1647

The kinds of trees most commonly planted are larch, Scotch and spruce firs, beech, birch, oak, ash, and elm; and much more attention is paid now than formerly to the pruning and thinning of the plantations.

Rent of Land.-The average rent of land in the parish is 12s. 6d. per acre. An ox or cow may be grazed in the Kincardineshire district for L.2, and in the Aberdeenshire district for L.3. A full-grown sheep grazed throughout the year in the former district may cost 2s. 6d., and in the latter, 7s.

Breed of Live-stock.-It is stated in the last Statistical Account of this parish, that it contained at that period "about 2000 sheep, a great deal of the soil being fit only for sheep pasture;" but so great are the recent improvements, that two or three English ewes which are kept by some of the principal farmers, and a few Highland wethers, which ire fattened in the parks of the resident proprietors for their own table, are the only stock of this description now kept in the parish. * The black-cattle are generally of the Aberdeenshire polled breed, more or less pure, to the rearing, and selecting of which much greater attention is now paid than formerly, so that the stock of several of the farmers is of a very superior and valuable description. A considerable number of pigs are fed by the inhabitants, which are either killed for family use, or disposed of to the pork-curers in Aberdeen.

* Since writing the above, the farm of Sunnyside, which is enclosed and nearly all
under cultivation, has been partially stocked for two years with 100 ewes; but that
change is so recent, that I am unable to say whether or not it has any advantages,
on such a farm, over a full stocking of black-cattle.

Husbandry. - Most of the farms are under a seven-shift rotation of cropping, viz. 1. grain; 2. grain ; 3. turnips and potatoes; 4. [891] grain sown out with rye-grass and clover; 5. hay; 6. and 7. pasture; but as top-dressing is difficult to be procured, and as the light soils are much pulverized by the frequent ploughings to which they are subjected under this rotation, it is thought by many too exhausting. Several farmers have, therefore, tried a six-shift rotation, under which only one crop of grain is taken before the fallow crop-a system which is certainly preferable in many respects to the former, as much labour and seed are saved, Without any serious diminution being experienced in the yearly quantity of grain,on account of the improved condition into which it brings the land. After a few years trial of this course of cropping, however, some complained that it did not produce a sufficient quantity of straw, in consequence of which they abandoned it, and have returned to the seven-shift rotation. Before the powerful effects of bone-dust were discovered, the expense attending the carriage of night-soil from Aberdeen rendered it necessary, in a great measure, to regulate agricultural operations by the contents of the farm-yard; but this excellent manure being, now extensively and successfully employed here in the raising of turnips, the farmer is enabled to apply the home-manure to his other crops, and when a portion of the turnips is eaten off with sheep, the light soil is thereby consolidated, and rendered much more fertile.

Draining and Embanking. - A considerable breadth of marshy land has been reclaimed by draining; but the system of thorough draining has not yet been introduced, although it might be applied with great advantage to different parts of the parish. The increased exertions which, of late years, have been made throughout the country generally, to effect a more perfect drainage of wet land, have rendered the Dee subject to more frequent and much higher floods than formerly, so that embanking is now absolutely necessary for the protection of its haughs. This operation, however, has hitherto been confined in this parish to the estate of Park, on which an embankment, 2320 yards in extent, was begun by Mr Burnett, and completed by the late proprietor in 1821, and cost upwards of L.1000. It was finished in the most substantial manner, and according to the most approved plans, but was so breached and otherwise injured by the great flood in August 1829, that an additional sum of L.1000 had to be expended in repairing it. On that occasion it was considerably strengthened, and piers were projected at the curves to break the force of the stream, so that no apprehension was entertained of its speedily giving way a [892] second time. But the river having risen in the autumn of last year, to within a few inches of its height in 1829, a considerable portion of the embankment again yielded to its pressure, and the torrent, charged with drift-wood, swept with irresistible violence over the haugh and lawn, destroying the crops on the former, and committing great devastation among the clumps and belts which ornamented and enclosed the latter. The present proprietor, however, is about to repair it in a more judicious manner, at the estimated expense of L.1500; and when that sum shall have been expended, this embankment, which protects only 60 or 70 acres of indifferent haugh land, will have cost, within twenty years, upwards of L.3500,

Leases and Farm-Buildings, &c. - The leases of the farms are for nineteen years; a term which seems to be satisfactory to both landlord and tenant. The farm-steadings are much improved, those lately erected being neat, substantial, and commodious. A great deal of the arable land has been enclosed with stone dikes within the last twenty years, and many of the fields, especially upon Park, are well sheltered by belts of thriving wood; but much of this kind of work remains to be done in different parts of the parish. It may not be improper to state, as a proof of the extensive nature of the improvements which have been effected upon Park alone, that, in 1807, Mr Burnett purchased that estate for L.9000, and, in 1839, Mr Kinloch, the present proprietor, purchased it from Mr Moir for L.28,500.

Fisheries. - On that part of the Dee which bounds this parish, there are three stations where the salmon-fishery is prosecuted with the drag-net and cobble. They were formerly very productive, and brought high rents annually to the proprietors; but their value is now much reduced on account of a deficiency of fish, which has of late years been so great, that the number taken in a season has frequently been inadequate to cover the actual expense Various causes have been assigned for this deficiency, but it is chiefly to be attributed to the employment of stake and bag-nets in the fishery. These destructive engines are so thickly planted along the coast, and placed so close to the river's mouth, that when the salmon instinctively approach the beach in search of fresh-water, the greater number of them are entangled in these snares, from which escape is impossible. The fishery is also prosecuted with them as actively on Sunday as on the other days of the week; and this circumstance, when viewed in connection with [893] the fact, that the success of the upper river fishings depends almost entirely on a strict observance of the Sunday's slap, is quite sufficient to account for the deficiency complained of, so that we no longer wonder at so few fish being now taken at stations which were formerly more productive, but rather feel astonished that so many succeed in effecting an entrance into the river while its mouth is beset with such formidable obstructions.

But this mode of prosecuting the fishery is not only thus injurious to the property of the river heritors, it also tends, in no small degree, to render the breed of this fish extinct; for, if fresh water be its native element, (which seems placed beyond a doubt, not only by the absence of all proof on the other side, but by the fact of their regularly and universally frequenting it at the spawning season, and also by the difference more or less observable, which enables experienced fishermen to distinguish from each other the fish of various rivers), then the high spawning-ground must be the most eligible, and the productiveness of the ensuing season be
mainly dependent on the spawn which is there deposited; because the upper fords and shallows, where the spawning-beds are formed, are liable to little or no alteration by traffic and the violence of winter-floods, so that the spawn rests there in safety. Whereas spawning-beds on the lower part of the river are continually exposed to accidents, for, when the water is low, the passing and repassing of carts and cattle, and the grounding of rafts and drift wood upon the fords must be very injurious, and when the stream is swelled by the accumulated waters of a flood, its violence can scarcely fail to remove the gravel with which the beds are covered, and expose the spawn to the ravages of trout, which are known to devour it greedily. Sometimes, indeed, when the flood has been high, the receding waters leave the spawn upon the bank, furnishing thereby irresistible evidence of the destruction which it has occasioned. Every mode of fishing, therefore, which makes the stock of salmon dependent on the spawn deposited in the lower part of the river, where the beds are so insecure, must tend ultimately to destroy the breed of this valuable fish. But the present mode of employing the stake and bag-nets has that effect, because, by infringing the Sunday's slap, the ascent of the fish to the upper spawning-ground is in a great degree prevented. No greater number, indeed, may have ultimately escaped formerly than now, during the six days of the week; but when the Sunday's slap was observed, the shoals, which entered the river early, bad no [894] difficulty in passing the highest net-station long before the fishing recommenced on Monday morning, after which, they were only exposed in their farther ascent, to the trifling hazard of being lured by the skill of an occasional angler. It may be thought, however, that such a number will attain the higher parts of the river when the nets are removed at the end of the season, as will be sufficient to preserve the breed, and even secure an abundant fishing for the ensuing year. But this cannot be the case, for the fish are in general so dull and heavy at the end of the season, that, having little inclination or ability to go far up the river, they pot themselves, as it is here called, in the first eligible pool, and shed their spawn on the low fords and shallows, where it is exposed to all the dangers which have already been enumerated.

The truth of these remarks may be proved by the following statement of the number of salmon exported from Aberdeen during the last six years; for, if it be remembered that the salmon trade of that city is not only supplied from the river, but chiefly from an extensive range of coast, that statement will demonstrate that the present mode of employing the stake and bag-nets in this fishery is tending rapidly to render the salmon-breed extinct.

Salmon exported from Aberdeen

...... 1834. .1835. .1836. .1837. .1838. .1839.
B. B. 10,372 .7981 . 7757 . 5234 ..4270 . 3894


Produce.- The average gross amount of raw produce raised in the parish, as nearly as can be ascertained, is as follows:

Kincardineshire District.            Aberdeenshire District. Total.
Grain of all kinds, 1368 qrs.        Grain of all kinds, 5940 qrs.
at L.1,                      L.1368   at L.1,                     L. 5940 L.7308
Turnips, &c. 114 acres, at L.5, 570  Turnips, &c. 495 acres, at L.5,  2475 3045
Hay, 114 acres, at L.2, 10s.    285   Hay, 495 acres, at L.2, 1Os.    1237 1522
{acres cultivated, 228,at}            {acres cultivated, 990, at}
{L.1, 5s. L.285}                       {L.1, 5s. L.1237}

{wood pasture, 0}                364  {wood pasture, 40} 1325 1689
{sc. uncult. 793, at 2s. 79}          {sc. uncult. 485, at 2s. 48}
Thinning and felling of woods,    20  Thinning and felling of woods,    80 100
Miscellaneous produce,            50 Miscellaneous produce,            150 200
------                                 ---- ----
Value in Kincardineshire, L .2657    Value in Aberdeenshire,     L.11,207 L.13,864

Machinery. - There are at present in the parish three meal-mills, fifteen thrashing-mills, one saw-mill, * and one carding-mill.

* Since the above was written, a second saw-mill, of the most approved construction, and containing boring and turning apparatus, has been erected in the parirb by Mr Kinloch of Park, at an expense of L.350 ; and another is at present in course of erection by the same spirited proprietor, on the outlet from the Loch of Drum.

V.-Parochial Economy.

Market-Town, &c.-Aberdeen is the nearest market-town, and also the post-town, and is about eleven miles distant from the [895] centre of the parish. The Aberdeen and Braemar turnpike road passes through the whole length of the parish, an extent of six miles, along which the Aberdeen and Ballater mail-coach runs daily, and, in the summer months, a stage-coach between Banchory and Aberdeen.

Ecclesiastical State. - The Bishop's see having been translated from Mortlach to Aberdeen by King David I. in 1154, Bishop Edward instituted a college of canons, which was apostolically confirmed by Pope Adrian IV. anno 1157, in whose bull (already referred to) there is mentioned among the other churches of the bishopric, "Ecclesiam de Dulmayok cum pertinentiis suis." * In 1368, Bishop Kinynmond II. added the pastor of Drumoak to the chapter of the cathedral, "ad instantiam discreti viri magistri Johanis de peblis;" + and in a list of the value of the different prebends made by Bishop Ingram in 1448, the last entry is "Dulmayk X lb." =

* Chartulary, fo. 43.
+ Epistolare, fo. 168.
= Chartulary, fo. 26.

The former parish church was very inconveniently situated for the inhabitants, being placed upon the extreme point of a narrow strip of land which protrudes along the side of the river into Peterculter. There is no record nor traditionary account of the time at which that house of God was erected, but when abandoned, in 1837, it was probably about three hundred years old. Within its gray ruin is the tombstone of Mr David Lindsay, elder, who was minister of this parish at different periods between 1654 and 1702; and near it, upon the adjoining wall, is another, which marks the grave of his successor, the inscription on which is almost obliterated by the hand of time. The surrounding churchyard (considering the circumstances of the parish) contains many grave-stones, the epitaphs on which are in general simply but well expressed; and one, which is in excellent preservation, bears the date of 1634.

The present church, which is situated nearly in the centre of the parish, was founded in the spring of 1835, and opened for public worship on the 13th November 1836. It is built in the Gothic style, from a design by Mr Archibald Simpson, architect in Aberdeen, and is finished in so neat, comfortable, and even elegant a manner, that it is the best specimen in this part of the country of what a parochial church ought to be. The expense of its erection was L.1002, 14s. 2d.; and it is calculated to contain about 630 sitters, allowing 18 inches to each. The seats are all [896] free, having been divided by the heritors among the tenants after they had set apart 11 sittings to the minister, 5 to the schoolmaster, 10 to the elders, 10 for the accommodation of persons attending baptisms, and 22 for poor people who have no land attached to their dwelling-bouses. It also contains ft small room in which the religious department of the parish library is managed, and a very comfortable vestry for the convenience of the minister.

The manse is about half a mile distant from the parish church, and was erected in 1836, from a design by Mr Smith, architect in Aberdeen, and, with the offices which were furnished at the same time, cost L.800. It is a handsome and commodious building, pleasantly situated by the side of the river, on a barren piece of ground in the centre of the glebe, containing about four acres, which, although exceedingly worthless for any other purpose, is well adapted for being laid out as pleasure ground, on account of the beautifully diversified form of its surface. In front is a terraced garden, now almost finished, which contains, 1 rood, 28 falls, 14 perches. To that little spot the present incumbent has carried upwards of 2000 cart-loads of earth, collected from the banks of the river and other waste places on the glebe; and the heritors, who always study his comfort and convenience, have enclosed it, in the most liberal manner, with a stone and lime wall, which cost L.105.

When the church and manse were removed to their present situation in 1836, the old glebe (including a piece of ground which had been given in mortmain by a laird of Culter to the minister of Drumoak) was exchanged for the new one, which, according to the land surveyor's report, contained, of arable land, 17 acres, 3 roods, 28 falls, and of pastures, &c. 10 acres, 1 rood, 6 falls; total, 28 acres, 0 roods, 34 falls; and was valued at L.21, 16s. 8d.

The teinds of the parish are exhausted, and the minister receives from the Exchequer L.59, 7s. 10d. to make up his stipend to L.150, exclusive of L.8, 6s. 8d. for communion elements.

The only place of public worship is the parish church, at which Divine service is well attended. The number of families at present belonging to the Establishment is 161, and of individuals, 76. The average number of comrnunicants yearly for the last three years is 412, inclusive of a few strangers from the neighbourhood; and the average amount for the same period of collections made at the church for the General Assembly's four schemes, the Presbtery's lunatic fund, and the Aberdeen Infirmary, is L.15, 12s. 6 1/4d. The number of Dissenting families in the pa-[897] rish is 6, and of individuals, 34, viz. Episcopalian families 2, in-
dividuals, 9; United Christian Church, families, 1, individuals;
7; Independents, families, 3, individuals, 18. *

* In 1842, the number of Dissenting families in the parish is 4, and of individuals, 22 viz. Episcopalian families, 1, individuals, 2; United Christian Church, families, 1, individuals, 7; Independents, families, 2, individuals, 13.

Ministers of Drumoak.-1. The Rev. John Gregory was minister of this parish previous to the year 1654. 2. The Rev. David Lindsay was ordained 1654, and ejected 1682, for refusing to take the oath and test imposed by Parliament. 3. The Rev. David Lindsay, younger, (son of the preceding,) was ordained 1682, and died 16th June 1691. The Rev. David Lindsay, elder, "14 re-entered to the exercise of the pastoral function in this parish," 21st June 1691, and died 30th September 1702. 4. The Rev. Alexander Shank, ordained 4th August 1703, and died 6th March 1749. 5. The Rev. John Glennie, ordained 10th January 1750, translated to Maryculter June 1763. 6. The Rev. Alexander Rose, ordained 9th May 1764, translated to Auchterless November 1774. 7. The Rev. John Fullerton, ordained 17th August 1775, died 27th May 1785. 8. The Rev. James Fraser, D. D., was ordained 15th June 1786, and died 31st January 1828. 9. The present incumbent was ordained as assistant and successor to Dr Fraser 27th July 1826.

Education. - There are three schools in the parish, the parochial school, the session's school, and Miss Irvine of Drum's school. The branches taught in the parochial school are, English reading and grammar, writing, geography, arithmetic, mathematics, and Latin. The quarterly fees are, for reading, 2s. 6d.; reading and writing, 3s. 6d.; arithmetic, 4s. 6d.; Latin, 5s.-
nothing additional being charged for English grammar and geography. The teacher has the legal accommodation, and draws yearly about L.20 as scbool-fees, L.30 of salary, 8 bolls of meal for teaching poor scholars on Drum's mortification, and what may be awarded him by the Trustees of the Dick Bequest. The session's school at Glashmore is in that part of the parish which lies in the county of Kincardine, and is under the patronage of the kirk-session. The branches taught in it are elementary, and the scale of fees is the same as at the parochial school. The teacher has at present only a free house and small garden, the privilege of procuring fire from a neighbouring moss, a salary of L.5, which is raised by subscription and school-fees which may amount to [898] about L.8 annually; but his situation will soon be more comfortable, as a legacy of L.200 has been left by a benevolent parishioner for the endowment of this school, (under the management of the treasurer of the kirk-session,) the interest of which will be available to the teacher after it has accumulated to the amount of the legacy tax. Miss Irvine of Drum's school was established last year, and is intended chiefly for affording instruction to girls in needlework. The mistress has a free house, and draws a quarterly fee of 2s. 6d. for sewing, and of 3s. when the first lessons in English reading are added. The number of scholars at present attending this little but useful seminary is 22. In the parochial and Glashmore schools the religious instruction of the young is attended to on the week days, and in the latter, also, on the Sabbath.

Literature. - A parish library was instituted in 1827, and contains about 300 volumes. Subscribers are supplied with books of a historical nature every Monday evening at the parochial school, and with religious publications at the church, every Lord's day after sermon. The terms of subscription are 6d. per quarter.

Poor and Parochial Funds. - The number of poor on the regular roll last year was 8, and the average amount of supply given to each was L.3, 3s. 10 1/2d. There were also 17 who required temporary relief, and received the average sum of L.1, 2s. 11 1/4d.

The amount of ordinary collections at the church during the same period was L.34, 18s. 10 3/4d.; interest of mortifications available to the poor, L.3, 14s.; interest of savings in the hands of the heritors at 5 per cent., L.19, 18s. 10 3/4d.; morthcloth and proclamation dues, L.1, 3s.; legacies and donations, L.4; and 12 bolls of mortified meal are annually divided among decayed tenants in the land of Drum. There are frequent instances among the poor of unwillingness to accept of parochial aid.

Fairs.-Five fairs are annually held in the parish, chiefly for the sale of cattle; but, being of recent appointment, they are exceedingly ill-attended, and consequently little business is transacted in them.

Inns.-We have two inns, both of which are in some measure necessary, the one being a stage between Aberdeen and Banchory-Ternan, the other between Aberdeen and Kincardine O'Neil.

Fuel.-The fuel most commonly employed is peat and wood; but coals carried from Aberdeen are frequently used, especially in the lower part of the parish, where the mosses are nearly exhausted.

Written February 1840. Revised Auqust 1842.

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